Convention on the recovery abroad of maintenance
Parties with reservations, declarations and objections
|Party||Reservations / Declarations||Objections|
|Netherlands, the Kingdom of the||Yes||No|
The Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 16 of the Convention concerning the competence of the International Court of Justice and affirms that the agreement of all the parties concerned is required in each case before a dispute can be brought before the International Court of Justice.
(a) The Argentine Republic reserves the right, with respect to article 10 of the Convention,
to restrict the application of the expression "highest priority" in the light of the
provisions governing exchange controls in Argentina.
(b) In the event that another Contracting Party extends the application of the Convention to territories over which the Argentine Republic exercises sovereignty, such extension shall in no way affect the latter's rights (the reference is to article 12 of the Convention).
(c) The Argentine Government reserves the right not to apply the procedure provided for in article 16 of the Convention in any dispute directly or indirectly related to the territories referred to in its declaration concerning article 12.
Objection United Kingdom, 13-03-1975
With reference to article 17 (1) of the Convention […] the Government of the United
Kingdom [objects] to reservations (b) and (c) made by Argentina in respect of articles
12 and 16 upon accession to the Convention.
Australia wishes to declare, in accordance with Article 12, that with the exception
of the Territory of Norfolk Island, the Convention shall not be applicable to the
territories for the International relations of which Australia is responsible.
Pursuant to article 3, paragraph 2, we have the honour to inform you that, for the recovery of maintenance in the territory of the Republic of Belarus, the Transmitting Agencies of the States parties to the Convention are obliged to submit the following documents:
1. Claimant's application for the recognition and execution of the court decision.
2. The court decision or a certified copy thereof and the official document concerning the decision's entry into force.
3. The document indicating that the party against whom the decision was taken and who did not take part in the court proceedings was duly notified or represented.
4. The document confirming partial execution of decisions at the time of its transmittal. Samples of the aforementioned documents are annexed hereto.
[…] the evidence normally required under the law of the State of the Receiving Agency
for the proof of maintenance claims, the manner in which such evidence should be submitted,
and other requirements to be complied with under such law, are as follows:
(a) Certification of the degree of relationship: marriage certificate, where the claimant is the spouse and birth certificate in the case of children entitled to a maintenance allowance.
(b) A declaration from the employer of the claimant stating his income if he is employed; if not, a declaration issued by the administrative authorities of the place of residence certifying that the claimant does not have an income.
Proceedings relating to maintenance for minors
"Maintenance" is understood to mean everything essential for the support, housing, clothing, medical treatment, recreation, comprehensive training and education or instruction of the minor. Maintenance shall include the obligation to pay the mother's pregnancy and childbirth expenses. Article 133, Decree No. 2737 of 1989, Minors' Code.
Every minor is entitled to the protection, care and assistance necessary to achieve adequate physical, mental, moral and social development, and such rights are recognized from the time of conception. Article 3 of Decree No. 2737, Minors' Code.
In the event of non-compliance with the maintenance obligation towards a minor, a request for conciliation may be submitted to the Family Ombudsman, the competent judges, the Family Commissioner or the Corrections Inspector of the minor's place of residence by either parent, by the child's relatives, by the guardian or person caring for the child or motu proprio. Article 136, Decree No. 2737 of 1989, Minors' Code.
The right to claim maintenance may not be waived and is non-transferable in the event of death. The right to claim maintenance may not be sold or assigned in any way.
The person owing maintenance (respondent) may not ask the claimant to offset that debt with sums owed to him by the claimant.
Even if the parents have been deprived of parental authority, their maintenance obligation does not cease. This obligation ceases when the minor is adopted.
As long as the respondent does not fulfil or agree to fulfil the maintenance obligation towards the minor, he may not claim custody and personal care or exercise other rights over the minor.
When necessary, the judge will decide who is to have custody and care of the minor(s) on whose behalf the proceedings were instituted, without prejudice to the relevant judicial actions. Article 150, Decree No. 2737, Minors' Code.
An expectant mother may claim maintenance in respect of the offspring of the legitimate father (husband) or of the man who has recognized paternity in the case of a child to be born out of wedlock. Article 135, Decree No. 2737 of 1989, Minors' Code.
Act No. 23 of 1991, Act No. 446 of 1998 and Act No. 640 of 2001
Article 35 of Act No. 640 of 2001. "Admissibility requirement. In cases suitable for conciliation, extrajudicial conciliation as of right is an admissibility requirement for application to the civil, administrative law, labour and family courts, as specified in this Act for each of these areas."
Accordingly, in requests for imposition of maintenance payments for a minor, the child's mother or father or the child's relatives or officials dealing with the case may initiate conciliation with the person obligated to pay such maintenance.
In this case, the (non-compliant) person obligated to pay maintenance will be summoned to the office of the Family Commissioner, the Family Ombudsman or the competent judge to try to reach agreement on the amount of the maintenance payments, the means of making them, their timing and guarantees of observance. The respondent may authorize deduction from his salary of the agreed amounts.
When conciliation has produced agreement on the maintenance figure, method of payment, timing of the payments and relevant guarantee, a record will be prepared for signature by the presiding official and the parties. The official will then approve it by means of a writ and the conciliation will thus become enforceable; in other words, in case of non-compliance by the respondent, maintenance enforcement proceedings will be initiated.
If the person summoned does not appear, after being summoned twice and after the reason for the summons has been given, or if the conciliation fails, the official may establish a provisional maintenance figure and the writ establishing it will be enforceable. The official must submit the claim for maintenance to the competent judge in order for the figure provisionally established to be confirmed by the judge.
Maintenance conciliations may vary depending on the circumstances of the person obligated to pay maintenance and the needs of the person receiving the financial support. In addition, the judicial decision awarding maintenance may be reviewed in order to revise the maintenance figure, when the respondent is the father of another minor or other minors.
The conciliation record must contain the following information:
Place, date and time of the conciliation hearing;
Name of the Conciliator;
Name of the persons summoned to the conciliation and indication of who attended the proceedings;
Brief account of the claims that are the subject of the conciliation;
Agreement reached by the parties during the proceedings.
Each of the parties participating in the conciliation must receive a copy of the record.
Claims for maintenance for minors
Claims for maintenance for minors are dealt with in the manner established in Decree No. 2737 of 1989 (Minors' Code); as specified in Decree No. 2272 of 1989, the decision is not subject to appeal.
Claims for maintenance must contain the name of the parties, their address for notification purposes (place of residence, domicile, whereabouts or place of work), the amount of maintenance claimed, the justification for the claim and the evidence adduced and must be accompanied by any documents in the possession of the claimant. Claims may be submitted orally or in writing. If any document is missing that the claimant is unable to attach, the judge may, at the request of a party or ex officio, order the relevant authority to issue the document.
If he deems it necessary, the judge may order attachment of the respondent's salary (in an amount that he considers appropriate) in the writ authorizing submission of the claim (in order to guarantee fulfilment of the maintenance obligation), for which purpose he shall communicate officially with the respondent's employer. He may also order retention of an amount that he considers appropriate from the respondent's severance pay, in order to guarantee the minor's maintenance in the event that the respondent resigns or is laid off from his employment.
Any judicial decision must be based on the evidence duly and regularly produced in the proceedings. Article 174 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
Means of proof. The means of proof are statements by the parties, responses under oath, testimony of third parties, expert opinions, physical examination of exhibits, documents, circumstantial evidence and any other means that may help the judge to form an opinion. Article 175 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
Evidence located abroad
When the civil proceedings require formalities on foreign territory, the judge may, depending on the nature and urgency of the matter:
1. Send letters rogatory, through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to one of the judicial authorities in the country where the formalities are to take place so that it may conduct them and send the evidence back through the diplomatic or consular agent of Colombia or of a friendly country.
2. Directly request the consul or diplomatic agent of Colombia in the country concerned to conduct the formalities in accordance with national legislation and to send the evidence back directly. The consuls and diplomatic agents of Colombia abroad are authorized to conduct all the judicial formalities in civil cases entrusted to them under article 193 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
Evidence is provided at the request of the parties or following an official order from the judge, if he considers it necessary for verification of the facts alleged by the parties. The cost of providing evidence is shared equally by the parties, without prejudice to the judge's decision regarding the costs of the proceedings.
Deposition. Statement made before the judge in exercise of his functions. Other statements are extra-judicial.
Questioning. The judge may officially summon the parties to answer under oath any questions he wishes to put to them. He may also summon one of the parties, at the request of the other, provided that the request is made in due form.
Oath. When the law authorizes the judge to request any of the parties to take an oath, the oath must be taken at the time when the evidence is to be presented, at the date and time appointed.
Statements by third parties. All persons are obliged to make statements if requested, except in the cases specified by law.
Expert opinion. An opinion requiring the participation of experts or persons specializing in specific scientific, technical or artistic subjects.
Physical examination of exhibits. Proof established by verification of certain facts germane to the proceedings.
Circumstantial evidence. In order for a fact to be considered as circumstantial evidence, it must be fully proved in the proceedings. The judge is authorized to deduce circumstantial evidence from the behaviour of the parties.
Documents. Documents may be public or private. Public documents are those issued by a public official in the performance of his duties or with his intervention. Private documents are those not meeting the requirements to be considered as public documents.
Authentic document. A document regarding which certainty exists as to the person who drafted, wrote or signed it. A public document is presumed to be authentic, unless the contrary is proved by evidence of forgery. Private documents are authentic if they meet the requirements specified by law.
In order for proceedings to be initiated for recovery of maintenance for minors, the relationship between the minor claiming maintenance and the person obligated to provide it must be proved. This shall be done by reference to the Civil Registry where the minor's birth is recorded. The financial ability of the respondent to provide maintenance must also be proved, even summarily (reason to believe). If such ability cannot be proved, an analysis will have to be made of the respondent's social position and habits and it will ultimately be presumed that the respondent will pay the minor the minimum wage.
In order to demonstrate the respondent's ability to pay, a certificate of income and statutory allowances, if he is employed, may be requested as evidence (documentary or oral). The Land Registry Office may be requested to report on immovable property owned by the respondent. The Transit and Transport Secretariat may be asked to determine the ownership of automobiles registered to the respondent. The Chamber of Commerce may be asked to establish the respondent's ownership of or participation in commercial firms. The national Tax Office may be asked to provide the respondent's tax return, and credit or banking institutions may be asked to report on the respondent's balances and on credit card usage. Oral evidence may also be sought, in which persons are asked about the respondent's income.
Maintenance is due at the time of the first claim and must be paid monthly in advance, during the first five days of the month in question. Article 421 of the Civil Code, in conformity with the second paragraph of article 498 of the Code of Civil Procedure, Decree No. 2282 of 1989.
The maintenance order may specify:
An amount to be deducted from the respondent's pay or salary, which may not exceed 50 per cent of his monthly income. Establishment of a fund, the income from which will be used to make the established maintenance payments.
A specific sum of money, depending on the respondent's demonstrated ability to pay.
Maintenance payments will increase annually, either in order to reflect cost-of-living increases or as agreed between the parties during the conciliation.
Maintenance enforcement proceedings
In the event of non-compliance with the maintenance obligation agreed during the conciliation or decreed by decision of the judge, the family judge concerned may initiate maintenance enforcement proceedings, with the legal consequences, if necessary, of attachment and auction of property.
Complaints of failure to provide maintenance
"Any person who without good reason fails to provide maintenance legally due to his relatives in the ascending line, descendants, adopter or adoptee, or spouse shall be liable to imprisonment for a term ranging from one (1) to three (3) years and a fine ranging from ten (10) to twenty (20) times the monthly legal minimum wage in force."
"The penalty shall be imprisonment ranging from two (2) to four (4) years and a fine ranging from fifteen (15) to twenty-five (25) times the monthly legal minimum wage in force if the failure to provide maintenance concerns a minor under fourteen (14) years of age." Article 233 of the Penal Code.
"Aggravating circumstances. The penalty specified in the preceding article shall be increased by up to one third if the respondent has fraudulently concealed, reduced or encumbered his income or assets in order to avoid paying maintenance." Article 234 of the Penal Code.
"Repetition. Enforcement of the sentence shall not preclude the initiation of further proceedings if the person concerned again fails to make maintenance payments." Article 235 of the Penal Code.
[…] that, in accordance with article 2, paragraph 3 of the Convention, the following
office has been designated to act as the Transmitting agency:
Ministarstvo za demografiju, obitelj, mlade i socijalnu politiku
(Ministry for Demography, Family, Youth and Social Policy)
[…] that, in accordance with article 2 of the Convention, the following authority
has been designated to act as Receiving Agency and Transmitting Agency:
Ministarstvo rada, mirovinskoga sustava, obitelji i socijalne politike
(Ministry of Labour, Pension System, Family and Social Policy)
[…] that the following authorities have been designated to act as Transmitting and
(…) that the Holy See has designated the Office of Protocol - General Affairs Section, Secretariat of State, 00120 Vatican City, to act in its territory [as Transmitting and Receiving Agency] replacing “Giudice Unico”.
Article 5: The Transmitting Agency shall transmit under paragraph 1 any order, final
or provisional, and any other judicial act, obtained by the claimant for the payment
of maintenance in a competent tribunal of Israel, and, where necessary and possible,
the record of the proceedings in which such order was made.
Article 10: Israel reserves the right:
a) to take the necessary measures to prevent transfers of funds under this Article for purposes other than the bona fide payment of existing maintenance obligations;
b) to limit the amounts transferable pursuant to this Article, to amounts necessary for subsistence.
[…], in accordance with article 2, paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Convention, the following
Office has been designated to act as the Transmitting and Receiving Agencies:
Judicial Department under the Supreme Court of the Kyrgyz Republic.
Notification under Article 2
(…) the [Government] of Mexico wishes to update the information of the Mexican central authority regarding the aforementioned Convention and transmits the following details (…):
Transmitting Agency and Remitting Agency:
Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores
Dirección General de Protección a Mexicanos en el Exterior
Dirección General Adjunta de Derecho de Familia
Until the full re-establishment of the territorial integrity of the Republic of Moldova, the provisions of the Convention shall be applied only on the territory controlled effectively by the authorities of the Republic of Moldova.
In its capacity as Receiving Agency, the Ministry of Justice shall limit the performance
of its duties to receiving documents from foreign claimants and, where appropriate,
communicating replies. It will also have the right, pursuant to article 3, paragraph
3, of the aforementioned Convention, to appoint the national authority authorized
to act on behalf of the claimant.
Pursuant to article 3, paragraph 2, of the aforementioned Convention, the evidence required for the proof of maintenance claims is as follows:
- the power of attorney granted to the Receiving Agency of the country in which the respondent is domiciled;
- a certified copy of the marriage or divorce certificate, as appropriate;
- a certified copy of the child's birth certificate.
For claimants over the age of 18 who do not have a regular income, the following is also required:
- a statement of monthly income and a certificate concerning the increase in maintenance;
- any other documents attesting to the claimant's delicate financial situation (school certificates, medical certificates in the case of disabled persons, etc.);
- the bank account of the claimant into which the respondent may transfer maintenance payments from abroad;
- photographs, where available, of the claimant and respondent;
- such other additional documents as may be requested by the courts.
The aforementioned documents must be submitted in duplicate, both copies having been duly authorized.
The Republic of Moldova hereby declares that all documents submitted to the Republic of Moldova pursuant to the provisions of the Convention must be accompanied by certified translations into Moldovan.
Netherlands, the Kingdom of the
With regard to Article 1 of the Convention, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
reserves the right not to facilitate the recovery of maintenance under this article
if the claimant and the respondent are both in the territory of the Netherlands, Suriname,
the Netherlands Antilles or Dutch New Guinea, and are receiving benefit or the equivalent
under the Social Assistance Act, and if maintenance is normally not recovered from
respondents in this situation, having regard to the circumstances of the case.
With regard to Article 1 of the Convention, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands reserves the right not to facilitate the recovery of maintenance under this article if the claimant and the respondent are both in the territory of the European part of the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and the Caribbean part of the Netherlands (the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba), and are receiving benefit or the equivalent under the Social Assistance Act, and if maintenance is normally not recovered from respondents in this situation, having regard to the circumstances of the case.
The person authorized to file a claim on a maintenance obligation against a respondent
residing abroad, can deposit an application on this subject, accompanied by the respective
explanatory documents, as provided in Article 3 paragraph 4 of the Convention, in
the County Court of his residence. The County Court will transmit this application
to the Ministry of Justice for further consideration. The County Courts will not impose
any charges for the functions connected with the acceptance of applications and their
enclosures, in accordance with the provisions of Article 4 of the Convention.
The Republic of Seychelles reserves the right, with respect to article 10 of the Convention, to restrict the application of the expression 'highest priority' in the light of the legal provisions governing exchange control in Seychelles.
… pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 3 of the Convention… the following office has been
designated as the Transmitting and Receiving Agency as from 1 April 2017 onwards:
Javni štipendijski, razvojni, invalidski in preživninski sklad.Republike Slovenije
(Public Scholarship, Development, Disability and Maintenance Fund of the Republic of Slovenia)
The Government of Slovenia updated the Transmitting and Receiving Agency as follows:
Javni štipendijski, razvojni, invalidski in preživninski sklad Republike Slovenije
(Public Scholarship, Development, Disability and Maintenance Fund of the Republic of
Article 1: Sweden reserves the right to reject, where the circumstances of the case
under consideration appear to make this necessary, any application for legal support
aimed at the recovery of maintenance from a person who entered Sweden as a political
Article 9: Where the proceedings are pending in Sweden, the exemptions in the payment of costs and the facilities provided in article 9, paragraphs 1 and 2, shall be granted only to nationals of or stateless persons resident in a another State Party to the Convention or to any person who would otherwise enjoy such advantages under an agreement concluded with the State of which he is a national.
Sweden withdraws the reservations made in respect of Article 9, paragraph 2 in the
Convention done at New York on 20 June 1956 on the recovery abroad of maintenance,
and makes the following limited reservations in respect of paragraph 1 of the same
Where the proceedings are pending in Sweden, the exemptions in the payment of costs and the facilities provided in paragraph 1 shall be granted only to persons resident in a State Party to the Convention or to any person who would otherwise enjoy such advantages under an agreement concluded with the State of which he is a national.
Notification under article 2:
[…] the following Office has been designated to act as the Transmitting and Receiving Agencies:
Federal Office of Justice
Central authority for international maintenance matters
(1) Persons living abroad may only claim the advantages provided for in the Convention
when considered non-residents under the exchange regulations in force in Tunisia.
(2) A dispute may only be referred to the International Court of Justice with the agreement of all the parties to the dispute.
Objection Poland, 05-02-1969
The Government of the Polish People's Republic wishes to express its objection, in accordance with article 17, paragraph 1, of the said Convention, to the first two reservations made by the Government of Tunisia in its instrument of accession.
In February 2014 the Russian Federation launched armed aggression against Ukraine
and occupied a part of the territory of Ukraine – the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
and the city of Sevastopol, and today exercises effective control over certain districts
of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine. These actions are in gross violation
of the Charter of the United Nations and constitute a threat to international peace
and security. The Russian Federation, as the Aggressor State and Occupying Power,
bears full responsibility for its actions and their consequences under international
The United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/68/262 of 27 March 2014 confirmed the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognized borders. The United Nations also called upon all States, international organizations and specialized agencies not to recognize any alteration of the status of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol.
In this regard, Ukraine states that from 20 February 2014 and for the period of temporary occupation by the Russian Federation of a part of the territory of Ukraine – the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol – as a result of the armed aggression of the Russian Federation committed against Ukraine and until the complete restoration of the constitutional law and order and effective control by Ukraine over such occupied territory, as well as over certain districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine, which are temporarily not under control of Ukraine as a result of the aggression of the Russian Federation, the application and implementation by Ukraine of the obligations under the above [Convention], as applied to the aforementioned occupied and uncontrolled territory of Ukraine, is limited and is not guaranteed.
Documents or requests made or issued by the occupying authorities of the Russian Federation, its officials at any level in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and by the illegal authorities in certain districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine, which are temporarily not under control of Ukraine, are null and void and have no legal effect regardless of whether they are presented directly or indirectly through the authorities of the Russian Federation.
The provisions of the [Convention] regarding the possibility of direct communication or interaction do not apply to the territorial organs of Ukraine in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, as well as in certain districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine, which are temporarily not under control of Ukraine. The procedure of the relevant communication is determined by the central authorities of Ukraine in Kyiv.
… Ukraine … is unable to guarantee full implementation of its obligations [under the above Convention] due to the Armed aggression of the Russian Federation and with the imposition of martial law until the complete cessation of encroachment on the sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of Ukraine.