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Treaty

Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence

Parties with reservations, declarations and objections

Party Reservations / Declarations Objections
Andorra Yes No
Armenia Yes No
Belgium Yes No
Croatia Yes No
Cyprus Yes No
Czech Republic Yes No
Denmark Yes No
Estonia Yes No
Finland Yes No
France Yes No
Georgia Yes No
Germany Yes No
Greece Yes No
Ireland Yes No
Latvia Yes No
Lithuania Yes No
Malta Yes No
Monaco Yes No
North Macedonia Yes No
Poland Yes Yes
Romania Yes No
Serbia Yes No
Slovenia Yes No
Spain Yes No
Sweden Yes No
Switzerland Yes No

Andorra

22-04-2014

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, Andorra reserves the right not to apply the provisions laid down in Article 30, paragraph 2, of the Convention.

Armenia

18-01-2018

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention the Republic of Armenia reserves the right not to apply the provisions of the Convention laid down in:
- Article 30, paragraph 2;
- Article 55, paragraph 1 in respect of Article 35 regarding minor offences;
- Article 58 in respect of Article 37;
- Article 59.

Belgium

25-04-2016

Competent authority (Article 10):
Institute for the equality of women and men
Brussels
Belgium

Croatia

12-06-2018

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Republic of Croatia reserves the right to apply the provisions laid down in Article 30, paragraph 2, only in respect of the victims who exercise the right to compensation in accordance with the national legislation governing the issue of compensation for the victims of offences.
Interpretative declaration
The Republic of Croatia considers that the aim of the Convention is the protection of women against all forms of violence, as well as the prevention, prosecution and elimination of violence against women and domestic violence.
The Republic of Croatia considers that the provisions of the Convention do not include an obligation to introduce gender ideology into the Croatian legal and educational system, nor the obligation to modify the constitutional definition of marriage.
The Republic of Croatia considers that the Convention is in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, in particular with the provisions on the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and shall apply the Convention taking into account the aforementioned provisions, principles and values of the constitutional order of the Republic of Croatia.

Cyprus

10-11-2017

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Republic of Cyprus reserves the right not to apply the provisions laid down in
a) Article 30, paragraph 2;
b) Article 44, paragraphs 1.e, 3 and 4;
c) Article 59.

Czech Republic

02-05-2016

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Czech Republic reserves the right not to apply the provisions laid down in Article 44, paragraph 1.e, of the Convention.

Denmark

23-04-2014

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, Denmark reserves the right not to apply the provisions laid down in Article 44, paragraph 3, in respect of Articles 36, 37 and 39 of the Convention.
In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 3, of the Convention, Denmark reserves the right to provide for noncriminal sanctions, instead of criminal sanctions, for the behaviours referred to in Article 34 of the Convention.
In accordance with Article 77 of the Convention, Denmark declares that, until further notice, the Convention shall not apply to Greenland and the Faroe Islands.

Estonia

26-10-2017

In accordance with Article 10, paragraph 1, of the Convention, the Republic of Estonia declares that the co-ordinating body designated for implementing the Convention in Estonia is the Ministry of Justice.

Finland

17-04-2015

Pursuant to Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Government of the Republic of Finland declares that Finland reserves the right not to apply Article 55, paragraph 1, to petty assault when the offence is committed against a person other than the person referred to in Chapter 21, Section 16, subsection 1, of the Criminal Code of Finland.

France

04-07-2014

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, France declares that it will apply the provisions laid down in Article 44, paragraphs 1.e, 3 and 4, only in specific cases or conditions.
In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, France declares that it will apply the provisions laid down in Article 58 to the offences established in accordance with Articles 37, 38 and 39, in all cases where these offences are qualified as crimes by French Law and in specific cases or conditions where these offences are qualified as torts (délits) by French Law.

18-08-2015

Competent authority as regards to article 10 of the Convention:
Directorate General of Social Cohesion
Ministry of Health, Social Affairs and Women's Rights

Georgia

19-05-2017

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, Georgia reserves the right not to apply the provisions laid down in Article 30, paragraph 2, of the Convention.

Germany

11-05-2011

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Federal Republic of Germany reserves the right not to apply the provisions laid down in Article 59, paragraphs 2 and 3, of the Convention.

12-10-2017

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Federal Republic of Germany reserves the right to establish jurisdiction for offences committed abroad by persons who have their habitual residence in the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany (Article 44, paragraph 1.e) only pursuant to the conditions stipulated in Section 7(2) no.2 of the German Criminal Code.
German criminal law does not contain any provision that implements Article 44, paragraph 1.e, in its entirety, i.e. there is no provision pursuant to which offences committed abroad by foreigners or stateless persons who have their habitual residence in Germany are in principle always subject to German criminal law. The kinds of cases relevant in practice are covered by section 7(2) no.2 of the German Criminal Code, whereby German criminal law is applicable to offences committed abroad if the offender was a foreigner or stateless at the time of the offence and is discovered in Germany and, although the Extradition Act would permit extradition for such an offence, is not extradited. However, it is conceivable that exceptional cases may arise where such prerequisites are not met.
In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Federal Republic of Germany reserves the right not to apply the provisions laid down in Article 59, paragraphs 2 and 3, of the Convention.
The guidance contained in Article 59, paragraphs 1 and 2, regarding the residence status of victims of domestic violence is in principle enacted by Section 31 (1) and (2) of the German Residence Act (AufenthG). For example, Section 31 (2), second sentence, states that a spouse who is the victim of domestic violence shall be granted an independent right of residence, even if the stipulated requirement, i.e. three years of lawful marital cohabitation in the Federal territory, has not been met; provided that the provisions of Section 31 (2), second sentence, have been complied with, this spouse does not face deportation under German law. That said, the legislative content of Article 59, paragraph 2, is ambiguous. According to Paragraph 306 of the Explanatory Report, under the Convention, for victims who find themselves in situations where they face repatriation because expulsion proceedings have been initiated against their abusive and violent spouse or partner, Parties must take appropriate measures to ensure that these victims are given the possibility to obtain the suspension of expulsion proceedings against themselves and to apply for residence status on humanitarian grounds. However, German law does differentiate between residence for family reasons and humanitarian grounds; prerequisites for, and legal consequences of, these two residence permits differ. The contents of Section 31 (2) relate to residence permits for family reasons. Hence, Germany considers that, regarding the interpretation of Article 59, paragraph 2, uncertainties do exist, and furthermore considers that these could not be clarified during the negotiations or in the Explanatory Report. Therefore, in accordance with Article 59, paragraph 2, Germany continues to reserve the right not to apply Article 59, paragraph 2, as Germany asserted at the time of signature of the Convention.
Pursuant to Article 59, paragraph 3, Parties shall issue a renewable residence permit to victims whose stay is necessary owing to their personal situation or for the purpose of their co-operation in an investigation or criminal proceedings. Section 60a (2), second sentence, of the German Residence Act stipulates that the deportation of a foreigner who is a victim of a criminal offence shall be suspended if his or her temporary presence is required for testimony in connection with an investigation or with proceedings relating to a criminal offence. This provision has on a regular basis been proven sufficient for safeguarding criminal justice proceedings. In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, Germany continues to reserve the right not to apply Article 59, paragraph 3, as Germany asserted at the time of signature of the Convention.

Greece

18-06-2018

The Hellenic Republic reserves the right in accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, not to apply paragraphs 1.e, 3 and 4 of Article 44 of the convention.

Ireland

08-03-2019

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, Ireland reserves the right not to apply the provisions of the Convention laid down in:
- Article 30, paragraph 2;
- Article 44, paragraph 3.

Latvia

18-05-2016

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Republic of Latvia declares that it reserves the right not to apply Article 55, paragraph 1, in respect of Article 35 regarding minor offences.
The Republic of Latvia declares that it will apply the Convention in conformity with the principles and provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia.

Lithuania

07-06-2013

The Republic of Lithuania declares that it will apply the Convention in conformity with the principles and the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania.

Malta

29-07-2014

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, subparagraphs 1 and 2, of the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, Malta is making the following reservations:
At this stage, Malta reserves the right not to apply Article 30(2) of the Convention and to continue to apply its current legislation in so far as State compensation is concerned.
Malta reserves the right not to apply Article 44(1)(e) and to establish jurisdiction when the offense is committed by a person holding permanent residence in terms of Article 7 of the Immigration Act.
At this stage, Malta reserves the right not to apply Article 59 and to continue to apply its current legislation in so far as the residence status of victims of violence whose residence status depends on that of the spouse or partner are concerned.

Period covered by the renewal of the reservation: 5 years from 1 November 2019.

25-04-2018

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 4, of the Convention, the Government of Malta would like to withdraw its reservation made with regard to Article 59 of the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence.

Monaco

07-10-2014

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Principality of Monaco reserves the right not to apply, in whole or in part, the jurisdiction rules established in Article 44, paragraphs 1.e, 3 and 4, of the Convention.
In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Principality of Monaco reserves the right not to apply, in whole or in part, the provisions of Article 59 of the Convention.
In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Principality of Monaco reserves the right not to apply Article 30 paragraph 2, of the Convention and to continue to apply its current legislation in so far as State compensation is concerned.

North Macedonia

23-03-2018

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, the Republic of Macedonia declares that it reserves the right:
- not to apply or to apply only in specific cases the provisions of Article 30, paragraph 2, of the Convention, in accordance with its applicable legislation (Law on the Children’s Justice) only in relation to a child established to have been a victim under final decision of a Court or to have been harmed by an act that is stipulated by law as a criminal offense with elements of violence,
- not to apply Article 44, paragraph 3, of the Convention and to apply the jurisdiction rules and requirements as set out in its legislation (Chapter 12 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Macedonia entitled “Application of the Criminal Legislature according to the place of perpetration of the Crime”),
- not to apply Article 55, paragraph 1 in respect of Article 35 of this Convention regarding minor offences, until the alignment of the provisions of the relevant legislation of the Republic of Macedonia with the provisions of the present Convention,
- not to apply Article 59 of the Convention until the alignment of the provisions of the relevant legislation of the Republic of Macedonia with the provisions of this Convention.

Poland

27-04-2015

The Republic of Poland declares that it will apply the Convention in accordance with the principles and the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland.
The Republic of Poland recognises the need to interpret Article 18, paragraph 5, of the Convention, in accordance with international agreements to which it is a Party and directly applicable normative acts of international organisations, to which the Republic of Poland submitted the competence of the state authority in some cases. Accordingly, the Republic of Poland shall provide consular protection only to Polish citizens and these national of the Member States of the European Union, which do not have access to diplomatic or consular post in the territory of a third country, on such terms as Polish citizens. Furthermore, in accordance with the universally accepted principles of international law, the Republic of Poland does not grant consular protection to nationals of the host state. The consul of the Republic of Poland can take actions of consular protection only by the measures provided for by international law on consular relations.
In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, the Republic of Poland reserves hereby that Article 30, paragraph 2, of the Convention shall be applied solely in regard of victims who are citizens of the Republic of Poland or the European Union and in accordance with a procedure provided for by national law.
In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, the Republic of Poland reserves the right not to apply the Convention when the offence is committed by a person whose habitual residence is the Republic of Poland.
In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, the Republic of Poland reserves hereby that Article 55, paragraph 1, of the Convention shall not be applied in respect of Article 35 regarding minor offences.
In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, the Republic of Poland reserves hereby that Article 58 of the Convention shall not be applied in respect of Articles 37, 38 and 39 of the Convention.

Objection Sweden, 03-03-2016

The Government of Sweden has examined the contents of the declaration made by the Republic of Poland upon ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence, by which the Republic of Poland will apply the Convention in accordance with the principles and the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland.
Sweden considers that this declaration in fact amounts to a reservation.
According to Article 78 of the Convention, reservations are only permitted to a limited and specified number of Articles. The declaration made by the Republic of Poland goes beyond what is permitted under the Convention.
In addition, Sweden would like state the following. Reservations by which a State Party limits its responsibilities under the Convention by not considering itself bound by certain articles and by invoking general references to national or religious law may cast doubts on the commitments of the reserving state to the object and purpose of the Convention and, moreover, contribute to undermining the basis of international treaty law.
It is in the common interest of states that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties also are respected, as to object and purpose, by all parties.
For these reasons the Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforementioned declaration.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Sweden and the Republic of Poland, without the Republic of Poland benefitting from its aforementioned declaration.

Objection Austria, 13-04-2016

The Government of Austria has examined the declaration made by the Republic of Poland upon ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence, stating that the Republic of Poland will apply the Convention in accordance with the principles and the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland.
Austria considers that this declaration amounts to a reservation. According to Article 78 of the Convention, reservations are only permitted with regard to a limited and specified number of Articles. Austria also considers that by referring to the principles and provisions of its constitution, Poland has made a reservation of a general and indeterminate scope which does not clearly define for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the obligations of the Convention.
Austria therefore considers this reservation also as incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and objects to it.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Republic of Austria and the Republic of Poland.

Objection Netherlands, the Kingdom of the, 28-04-2016

The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has carefully examined the declaration made by the Government of the Republic of Poland with respect to the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands notes that in this declaration the Republic of Poland subjects’ application of the Convention to the principles and the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, which in fact amounts to a reservation.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that such a reservation, which seeks to limit the responsibilities of the reserving State under the Convention by general reference to national law, raises doubts as to the commitment of that State to the object and purpose of the Convention.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands further recalls that according to Article 78, paragraph 1, of the Convention, reservations are only permitted with regard to a limited and specified number of Articles. The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to this reservation.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Republic of Poland.

Objection Finland, 06-05-2016

The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the declaration made by the Republic of Poland concerning the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence according to which the Republic of Poland will apply the Convention in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. The Government of Finland notes that the declaration seems to constitute a reservation as it limits the scope of the application of the Convention. This declaration/reservation seems to be incompatible with Article 78 according to which no reservation may be made in respect of any provision of the Convention with a limited number of exceptions provided for by that Article.
Furthermore, a reservation which consists of a general reference to national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define for the other Parties of the Convention the extent to which the Republic of Poland commits itself to the Convention and therefore may raise doubts as to the commitment of the Republic of Poland to fulfil its obligations under the Convention. Such a reservation is also subject to the general principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its domestic law as justification for a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
In its present formulation, the declaration/reservation made by the Republic of Poland seems to be incompatible with both Article 78 and the object and purpose of the Convention. According to Article 19 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of the Treaties, such reservations shall not be permitted.
Therefore, the Government of Finland objects to the aforesaid declaration/reservation made by the Republic of Poland. This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Finland and the Republic of Poland. The Convention will thus become operative between the two States without the Republic of Poland benefitting from this reservation.

Objection Norway, 05-07-2017

Date of effect: 01-11-2017
The Government of Norway has carefully examined the declaration made by the Republic of Poland upon ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, in which the Republic of Poland declares: “The Republic of Poland declares that it will apply the Convention in accordance with the principles and the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland.”
Norway notes that this declaration seems to amount to a reservation.
The Government of Norway notes that according to Article 78, paragraph 1, of the Convention, reservations are only permitted with regard to a limited and specified number of Articles.
By invoking a general reference to the national Constitution without further description of its content, the Republic of Poland exempts the other States Parties to the Convention from the possibility of assessing the full effects of the declaration. The Government of Norway considers that the reservation in its present form, which subjects the application of the Convention to the principles and provisions of the Republic of Poland, may cast doubts as to the commitment of the reserving State to the object and purpose of the Convention.
It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become Parties are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all parties.
The Government of Norway therefore objects to the aforesaid declaration.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Kingdom of Norway and the Republic of Poland, without the Republic of Poland benefiting from the aforesaid declaration.

Objection Switzerland, 14-12-2017

Date of effect of the objection: 1 April 2018.

The Swiss Federal Council has examined the declaration made by the Republic of Poland upon ratification of the Council of Europe Convention of 11 May 2011 on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, according to which the Republic of Poland will apply the Convention in accordance with the principles and the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland.
The Swiss Federal Council considers that this declaration amounts in fact to a reservation. Under Article 78 of the Convention, no reservation is permitted in respect of the provisions of the Convention, with a limited number of exceptions provided for in that article. The declaration made by the Republic of Poland goes beyond what is permitted by the Convention.
Moreover, a reservation which subordinates any provision of the Convention in general to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland constitutes a reservation of general scope which is likely to cast doubt on the full commitment of the Republic of Poland to the object and purpose of the Convention.
The declaration made by the Republic of Poland appears to be incompatible both with Article 78 and with the object and purpose of the Convention. The Swiss Federal Council recalls that according to this provision as well as according to Article 19 of the Vienna Convention of 23 May 1969 on the Law of Treaties, such reservations are not permitted.
It is in the common interest of States that the instruments to which they have chosen to become parties be respected in their object and purpose by all parties and that States be prepared to modify their legislation in order to fulfill their treaty obligations.
The Swiss Federal Council therefore objects to the declaration of the Republic of Poland. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention, in its entirety, between Switzerland and the Republic of Poland.

Romania

23-05-2016

In accordance with Article 78, paragraphs 1 and 2, of the Convention, Romania reserves the right not to apply or to apply only in specific cases or conditions the provisions laid down in:
- Article 30, paragraph 2;
- Article 44, paragraphs 1.e, 3 and 4;
- Article 55, paragraph 1, in respect of Article 35 regarding minor offences;
-Article 59.
In accordance with Article 78, paragraphs 1 and 3, of the Convention, Romania reserves the right to provide for non-criminal sanctions, instead of criminal sanctions, for the behaviors referred into Articles 33 and 34.

Serbia

21-11-2013

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, subparagraphs 1 and 2, of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence, the Republic of Serbia reserves the right not to apply the provisions under Article 30, paragraph 2, and Article 44, paragraphs 1.e, 3 and 4, of the Convention pending the alignment of its national criminal legislation with the said provisions of the Convention.

Slovenia

05-02-2015

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Republic of Slovenia declares that it reserves the right not to apply the provisions laid down in
– Article 30, paragraph 2;
– Article 44, paragraphs 1.e, 3 and 4;
– Article 55, paragraph 1 in respect of Article 35 regarding minor offences;
– Article 58 in respect of Articles 37, 38 and 39, and
– Article 59.

Spain

10-04-2014

In the event that this Convention were to be ratified by the United Kingdom and extended to Gibraltar, Spain would like to make the following declaration:
1. Gibraltar is a non-autonomous territory whose international relations come under the responsibility of the United Kingdom and which is subject to a decolonisation process in accordance with the relevant decisions and resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations.
2. The authorities of Gibraltar have a local character and exercise exclusively internal competences which have their origin and their foundation in a distribution and attribution of competences performed by the United Kingdom in compliance with its internal legislation, in its capacity as sovereign State on which the mentioned non-autonomous territory depends.
3. As a result, the eventual participation of the Gibraltarian authorities in the application of this Convention will be understood as carried out exclusively as part of the internal competences of Gibraltar and cannot be considered to modify in any way the provisions of the two previous paragraphs.
4. The process provided for by the Arrangements relating to Gibraltar authorities in the context of certain international treaties (2007) which have been adopted by Spain and the United Kingdom on 19 December 2007 (jointly with the "Agreed Arrangements relating to Gibraltar authorities in the context of EU and EC instruments and related treaties", dated 19 April 2000) apply to this Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, signed ad referendum by Spain on 11 May 2011.
5. The application of the Convention to Gibraltar should not be interpreted as an acknowledgment of any right or any situation regarding areas not covered by Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht of 13 July 1713, concluded between the Crowns of Spain and of the United Kingdom.
Spain will make the necessary changes to its domestic legislation in order for the Convention to be applied in its entirety.

Sweden

01-07-2014

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, Sweden reserves the right not to apply the provisions laid down in Article 44, paragraph 3, and Article 58 of the Convention.

Switzerland

14-12-2017

In accordance with Article 78, paragraph 2, of the Convention, Switzerland reserves the right
- not to apply Article 44, paragraphs 1.e;
- not to apply Article 44, paragraphs 3, with regard to sexual violence against adults (Article 36 of the Convention) and to forced abortion and forced sterilisation (Article 39 of the Convention);
- not to apply or to apply only in specific cases or conditions, the provisions laid down in Article 55, paragraph 1, regarding minor offenses (Article 35 of the Convention),
- not to apply or to apply only in specific cases or conditions, the provisions laid down in Article 59.

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